The field of immuno-oncology (or cancer immunotherapy) has exploded in the past decade
Cancer immunotherapies generally work by interfering with the inhibitory signals produced by tumors against certain elements of the immune system. Because such inhibitory signals are mediated by “immune checkpoint” cell-surface molecules, the first generation of cancer immunotherapies are generally known as checkpoint inhibitors. The remarkable clinical efficacy (measured as long-term tumor control or even complete disappearance of tumor lesions) of some checkpoint inhibitors appears to be associated with the activity of effector lymphocytes, mainly tumor-infiltrating effector T cells. There remains, however, a significant unmet medical need.