Despite the pronounced benefit derived by some patients from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors
The unfortunate reality is that a large segment of patients fail to benefit from such medicines. Likely reasons include the heterogeneity of the mechanisms by which tumors interfere with what would otherwise be an appropriate and tumor-eradicating immune response. Effective application of cancer immunotherapies against ever larger segments of the patient population will likely require an understanding of the diversity of tumor-triggered immunosuppression mechanisms and access to drugs that have been specifically designed to interfere with such mechanisms. These approaches will be supplemented by agents that selectively activate and stimulate the function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells such as T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and inflammatory macrophages. Each of these types of agents will address one or more immunotherapy therapeutic nodes*.